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If the eye is subjected to a foreign body such as dirt, hair, chemical, heat or other material, it’s natural reflex is to shut the eye lid to prevent secondary injury or further contamination. When the eyes remain closed, humans typically becomes unbalanced and disoriented, and if injured, their brain will reassign priorities to defensive actions and turn away from the negative stimuli. The hands usually follow to cover the eye(s) in a shielding posture * see image. Eye gouging an attacker should provide a similar response which creates a negative time frame for them and positive time frame for you. This gives you the opportunity to continue causing injury (if necessary) or to extricate/escape. The situation/environment and your perception of risk will also dictate the tactics you employ to protect yourself or others. Some people (usually due to drug induced states or psychotic delirium) may not have the same pain receptor responses as a “normal functioning” person. Typical target areas such as pressure points or striking techniques may not have the desired result. Other options may have to be used to protect yourself. A common trichotomy of priority targets is “Vision, Wind, Limbs”. A thorough understanding of self defence and use of force should compliment the Eye Gouge Head training principles and concepts. An expected injury from eye gouges with fingers and thumbs would be corneal abrasions and hyper-extension/flexion of the ocular muscles. Vision will likely be disrupted due to over-tearing and pain. Actual puncture and or removal of the eye is extremely rare (except in the movies)!